Synthesis of new covalent triazine frameworks for carbon dioxide photoreduction
- Synthèse de nouveaux "Covalent Triazine Frameworks" pour la photoréduction du dioxyde de carbone
Alves Fávaro, Marcelo; Palkovits, Regina (Thesis advisor); Canivet, Jérome (Thesis advisor)
Aachen : RWTH Aachen University (2020, 2022)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis
Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, 2020. - Dissertation, Universität Lyon, 2020
Using sunlight as a renewable source of energy to promote carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion is an interesting approach to address sustainable chemicals and fuels production as well as mitigation of climate change. However, in most photocatalytic systems, the utilization of a homogeneous photosensitizer represents a key limitation for long-term reactions due to its low stability. Therefore, novel, more efficient and stable photocatalyst materials and photocatalytic processes are required. Here, the strategy of structuration at the molecular-level of CTF photocatalysts is presented, seeking to enhance their long-term stability. The integration of photo-active centers into a molecularly defined support improve their photocatalytic stability. Moreover, the incorporation of chelating moieties, such as bipyridine, offers a unique possibility for heterogenization of organometallic complex, profiting at the same time from enhanced selectivity and activity from the molecular catalyst and easy handling and separation from its heterogeneous nature. Macroligands, a solid acting like the ligand in the corresponding molecular complex, is a pivotal strategy to bridge the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In this thesis, the synthesis of simple CTFs through condensation was done in order to optimize the parameters and highlight the main advantages and drawbacks of this method. Additionally, the approach was extended to the synthesis of functionalized materials, based on bipyridine ligands. Using the strategy of modular design, the content of a ligand within the framework was precisely controlled for the first time. Additionally, by judiciously chosen the proper tailored precursor and its content, it is possible to carefully control properties like light absorption and porosity, pushing the boundaries of molecular control on the synthesis of CTFs. In this regard, CTFs based on bipyridine were precisely designed in order to contain both, a photoactive moiety and a chelating site for the heterogenization of molecular catalysts within the structure. In our all-in-one concept, a (Cp*)-Rhodium complex was heterogenized within CTFs macroligands containing different amounts of bipyridine. Those materials catalyze the carbon dioxide photoreduction to formate, driven by visible light at TOFs around 4 h-1.